Remove Punctuation Python

Removing some punctuation from a CSV file in Python 3. However, barring a simple formula or macro to do this, I could do a find and. They are extracted from open source Python projects. By continuing to browse this site, you agree to this use. For your example a space on either side of the slash would be appropriate according to that style convention. ' # replace non useful characters with spaces. If you have some experience with Python and an interest in natural language processing (NLP. Let’s demonstrate this with a small pipeline of text preparation including: Load the raw text. a) Natural Language Toolkit (NLTK/Python) Bi-gram language model is created for each of the six languages. Python: Remove punctuation from string (quickly). So far nobody has explained *why* the repr() calls are the problem. For example, a file containing numbers in a French format is not useful to a U. The goslate module connects with the Google Translate API. Available In: 2. We use cookies to ensure you have the best browsing experience on our website. Hi I was looking for a formula or more likely a macro, that would allow me to remove all punctuation from a spread sheet? I receive reports daily from an external source and for me to be able to upload it to our internal system to work with it, i need to remove all puctuation and just leave numbers and text. In ASCII it is used to represent a punctuation mark (such as right single quotation mark, left single quotation mark, apostrophe punctuation, vertical line, or prime) or a modifier letter (such as apostrophe modifier or acute accent. Replace whitespaces with a single space but delete all tabs. , and punctuation which contains the punctuation characters. punctuation) Or for unicode: import string translate_table = dict((ord(char), None) for char in string. The dash is replaces with a whitespace to preserve hyphenated words. Must be a generic term for 'punctuation' I can use inside the gsub? So I was thumbing through the link that Telmen posted and found \W (uppercase W) which does the same thing that [^A-Za-z0-9_] does. Below is my code for each of the four data structures exercises Exercise 1. Take care to punctuate correctly when punctuation is required both inside and outside parentheses. Python: Remove punctuation from string (quickly). Such single characters can be removed using regex as shown below:. find the punctuation : findall « Regular Expressions « Python Tutorial. punctuation: # Do something Next, we will focus on removing stop words. PowerShell is both a powerful command-line shell and a scripting language, providing the full richness of the. , : ; ' " ? ! - etc. Using an example, remove all punctuation from text in a dataset. If given no further argument, it removes all whitespace on the end of a string. Particularly, I'm interested in feedback to the following code:. translate(remove_punct_map). Personally, I believe this is the best way to remove punctuation from a string in Python because: It removes all Unicode punctuation; It's easily modifiable, e. punctuation) It's performing raw string operations in C with a lookup table - there's not much that will beat that but writing your own C code. Regular Expressions Cheat Sheet from DaveChild. i guess that is all. punctuation¶ String of ASCII characters which are considered punctuation characters in the C locale. x but under Python 3. The examples are to be tried at the Python console. I need to strip the punctuation from a column of 40,000 entries with many different types of punctuation. Replace \r with the (br) tag. Python code to remove leading and trailing character or set of characters from the string # Python code to remove leading & trailing chars # An example of string. Wiki says: Python 2. The proposed syntax is far too punctuation-heavy, and any of the alternatives discussed are ambiguous or too subtle. The hyphen punctuation rules and examples:. strip([remove]) Parameters : remove (optional): Character or a set of characters, that needs to be removed from the string. The fastest way to strip all punctuation from a string is to use str. Python String Module Classes. punctuation, which is a string containing all the ASCII punctuation Unlock this content with a FREE 10-day subscription to Packt Get access to all of Packt's 7,000+ eBooks & Videos. To create a list of lower-case letters in the alphabet in python: map(chr, range(97, 123)) To create a list of upper-case letters in the alphabet in python:. Your task for this project is to use regular expressions to discover and modify information from the provided test. digits password = "". This tutorial went over several ways to format text in Python 3 through working with strings. In ASCII it is used to represent a punctuation mark (such as right single quotation mark, left single quotation mark, apostrophe punctuation, vertical line, or prime) or a modifier letter (such as apostrophe modifier or acute accent. The maketrans() method takes 3 parameters: x - If only one argument is supplied, it must be a dictionary. Remove punctuation which becomes part of the url … In colab and likely other applications, the period is incorrectly bound into the url, which is then invalid and produces a 404 DefaultCredentialsError: Could not automatically determine credentials. Python how to separate punctuation from text. Using an example, remove all punctuation from text in a dataset. to do it once for each punctuation mark that might appear in my column of text. Python Program to Remove Punctuation From a String using for loops and regular expressions. $ python string_capwords. This helps other contributors be aware of what is going on with the GSoC project, and perhaps offer suggestions and advice. , : ; ‘ “ ? ! - etc. Personally, I believe this is the best way to remove punctuation from a string in Python because: It removes all Unicode punctuation; It's easily modifiable, e. Any function that manipulates string value returns a new string and we have to explicitly assign it to the string, otherwise, the string value won't change. Putting things together: We will use list comprehensions, string. Using a Python recipe? Installing ActivePython is the easiest way to run your project. You can call Trim with an array of punctuation characters and it will work in the same way. To get a range of document ids in an index, specify the ids_only argument to the Index. None maps the character that will be removed. Python's len() method can be used to easily find the length of a string. Python Program to Remove Punctuations From a String. With the "in" operator and the string. We also need to remove the punctuation from the text. After this command has run, your computer be empty. The period after the parentheses is necessary to bring the entire sentence to a close. Remove punctuation. Add Space at the start of the string in Python – rjust() function in python; Add space at the end of the string in Python – ljust() function in python. Whenever we have textual data, we need to apply several pre-processing steps to the data to transform words into numerical features that work with machine learning algorithms. I assume I can have a list inside of a dictionary. DoL lesson 05 - removing spaces and punctuation from strings Python: NLTK part 1/3 | Natural Language Tool Kit - corpus, punctuation, stop words Let's Learn Python - Basics #2 of. The text will contain "words" beginning or ending with non-alphabetic characters. We have used for loop to check each character of given string and remove the punctuation and then print as output. How can you remove full-stops, hashtags, symbols, commas, hyphen, semicolon etc from dataset using python for sentiment analysis? def remove_punctuation(s): no_punct = "" With Python and. An increase in indentation comes after certain statements; a decrease in indentation signifies the end of the current block. Python Program to Remove Punctuation From a String using for loops and regular expressions. remove Punctuation characters. 2012-09-28 21:52 pramsey * Remove no longer used function, lwgeom_pt_inside_circle. I'd remove the HTML tags in the webscraper, but in this situation, that would have smushed the lines of my poems together and caused me to lose some. If this is true how can access a certain item in the list. Let's consider the most noticeable: remove_stopwords() - remove all stopwords from string. Use your length variable to repeat as many times as the user entered. Putting things together: We will use list comprehensions, string. punctuation(). You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. For my particular NLP classification tasks, I have decided that all punctuation and numbers should be replaced with a space — to remove it and prevent combining of two words adjacent to the punctuation. Python borrows this feature from its predecessor ABC: instead of punctuation or keywords, it uses indentation to indicate the run of a block. from string import punctuation. I know that this is gunna be simple but im kinda noobie at python so Thanks, giodamelio. So, given the string automobile sales & repair I'd like it to return automobile Replacing all non-alphanumeric characters using python and regular expressions. The first argument is the space while the second argument is without space in double quotes. _,] or supply a function instead of the replacement string:. How To Use CSV Files. Written this way, it really is compatible with human thinking, even though you might not come up with such code intuitively. 1987-01-01. Python doesn't need them to know when a line of code ends since it uses newlines instead (there are exceptions, but none here) so you can remove them. Well, why not start with pre-processing of text as it is very important while doing research in the text field and its easy! Cleaning the text helps you get quality output by removing all. However, we do not want to remove anything else from the article since this is the original article. From an efficiency perspective, you’re not going to beat. _,] or supply a function instead of the replacement string:. Note the question mark within the parentheses. Tokenizing Words and Sentences with NLTK Natural Language Processing with Python NLTK is one of the leading platforms for working with human language data and Python, the module NLTK is used for natural language processing. if c not in string. Available In: 2. Unstructured textual data is produced at a large scale, and it’s important to process and. Python: Remove punctuation from string (quickly). Learn The Data Science Techniques To Process Text To Use For NLP Projects In Python. It doesn't matter whether people view the "line" as continuing; they do immediately recognize that the expression needs to be closed before the statement can end. punctuation + string. In so-called "free-format" languages — that use the block structure derived from ALGOL — blocks of code are set off with braces ( { } ) or keywords. How to remove all punctuation in python keyword after analyzing the system lists the list of keywords related and the list of websites with related content, in addition you can see which keywords most interested customers on the this website. ASCII to Unicode Converter; Convert Timestamp (Unix) Obfuscation Tools. If your assumption is that a word consists of alphabetic characters only, you are wrong since words such as can't will be destroyed into pieces (such as can and t) if you remove punctuation before tokenisation, which is very likely to affect your program negatively. Words are lowercased and split into tokens, thus obtaining a new texts variable, which is a list of lists. If you need to delete elements based on the index (like the fourth element or last element), you can use the pop() method. Note: We add each character to our result that is not punctuation. Python program to print "Hello Python" Python program to do arithmetical operations. There is an option to remove control characters as well. ) from certain paragraphs. We will see how to optimally implement and compare the outputs from these packages. You could either specify the punctuation you want to remove manually, as in [. word_tokenize(). # Removes all of the punctuation in any item in a list. Re: Remove punctuation from the front of a string Posted 30 November 2009 - 11:16 AM You can use substr to trim all those punctuation characters at the same time if you know where the first non-punctuation character in your string is. I am trying to compare two strings and ignore punctuation during the comparison. Luckily, Python's string module comes with a replace() method. While working on a condition to check whether a string contained the special characters used in the glob. [python] LevelDB [python] LMDB [python] mangage path in OS X [python] memory mapped dictionary shared by multi process [python] mod_fastcgi, mod_wsgi [python] mod_python [python] multi threading or multi processing for fetching url [python] performance tuning and profiling [python] python tricks [python] remove control characters and all. If there are other scripts running (or the Python Interpreter is runnning) one of those will take the place of the removed launch in the Console tab. Every Python random password or string generator method has its own merits and demerits. If anyone knows of a method I could use that would be great. Easily type the correct punctuation marks. Unstructured textual data is produced at a large scale, and it’s important to process and. words('english') # Define additional stopwords in a string additional_stopwords = """case judge judgment court""" # Split the the additional stopwords string on each word and then add # those words to the NLTK stopwords list stoplist += additional_stopwords. In this article you will learn how to remove stop words with the nltk module. Re: Remove punctuation from the front of a string Posted 30 November 2009 - 11:16 AM You can use substr to trim all those punctuation characters at the same time if you know where the first non-punctuation character in your string is. On some place of your programming, you may require to remove all these white spaces in Python. punctuation. This is a python liberary which will remove all the punctuation in a python string. 2) Stemming: reducing related words to a common stem. _,] or supply a function instead of the replacement string:. fromkeys(map(ord, string. and i want to remove only the punctuation leaving the letters and numbers intact. before going to the coding section have a look at this. It matches the first occurrence of that character in the string. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. Spaces (which are not punctuation) are kept. We will not remove other numbers, punctuation marks and special characters from this text since we will use this text to create summaries and weighted word frequencies will be replaced in this article. You cannot go straight from raw text to fitting a machine learning or deep learning model. Python has introduced a. Dot your i's and cross your t's. The script 07/09_remove_punctuation. Syntax : string. The following are code examples for showing how to use string. If omitted or None, the chars argument defaults to removing whitespace. The characters to be removed are a string, "punctuation. It is exposed as a separate function for cases where you want to pass in a predefined dictionary of arguments, rather than unpacking and repacking the dictionary as individual arguments using the *args and **kwargs syntax. submissions of 5-240 min. Press button, get text. newStr is a single piece of text even when expression or replace is a cell array of character vectors or a string array. Machine Learning Mastery - How to Clean Text for Machine Learning with Python. capwords(str) methods have some flaws. OK, I know that this is Python 101, but I can't seem to figure it out. home 【エントリーでポイント5倍 アズワン 8/4 日伝 20:00~8/9 01:59 山善】イスカルジャパン イスカル A チップ IC908 gif 5. This is because while a phosphor on a CRT will begin to dim as soon as the electron beam passes it, LCD cells open to pass a continuous stream of light, and do not dim until instructed to produce a darker color. We will use NLTK's punkt and wordnet modules for punctuation removal. The list collection stores a number of items that are separated by a comma. You can remove it with simple python. 2015-11-22 14:26 Daniel Baston * [r14416] remove inaccurate comments (the tests are always performed, and we're calculating a box if we don't have one) 2015-11-21 10:14 Sandro Santilli * [r14411] Remove execute bit from testcases 2015-11-20 19:00 Sandro Santilli * [r14410] Add test for (non-literal) NULL TopoElementArray 2015-11-20 18:42 Sandro. Campbell, Jr. If given no further argument, it removes all whitespace on the end of a string. first of all the text being enteered is a sentence and not a single chararcter. if given an argument, for example "!?", it will remove all "!" and "?" at the end of the string. , : ; ‘ “ ? ! - etc. Measure PMI - Read from csv - Preprocess data (tokenize, lower, remove stopwords, punctuation) - Find frequency distribution for unigrams - Find frequency distribution for bigrams - Compute PMI via implemented function - Let NLTK sort bigrams by PMI metric - Write result to CSV file. For example, a file containing numbers in a French format is not useful to a U. Dot your i's and cross your t's. To create a list of lower-case letters in the alphabet in python: map(chr, range(97, 123)) To create a list of upper-case letters in the alphabet in python:. PowerShell need no longer be perplexing. xml - itools provides XML processing support in a fashion similar to that of PullDom. How to remove all punctuation in python keyword after analyzing the system lists the list of keywords related and the list of websites with related content, in addition you can see which keywords most interested customers on the this website. The map function is the simplest one among Python built-ins used for functional programming. Python - Read number in image with Pytesseract I am using a combination of pyautogui and pytesseract to capture small regions on the screen and then pull the number/text out of the regionI have written script that has read the majority of captured images perfectly, but single digit numbers seem to cause an issue for it. I imported the text file in Python as a list of text documents (texts), which are now processed to remove punctuation, stop-words and special characters. translate() method. x but under Python 3. Get corrections from Grammarly while you write on Gmail, Twitter, LinkedIn, and all your other favorite sites. The Chicago Manual of Style, for example, allows for a space on either side of the slash when either of the separated items has a space itself. Python : How to remove element from a list by value or Index | remove() vs pop() vs del Pandas : Get frequency of a value in dataframe column/index & find its positions in Python Python : How to Remove Duplicates from a List. Just paste your text in the form below, press Remove Punctuation button, and you get text with no punctuation. There are other ways to remove punctuation. This version has lots of updated features like autocomplete, go to definition, support document, etc. We will illustrate the use of string methods, regular expressions and natural langauge parsing, as well as some Python built-in data structures (e. trying to remove the following punctuation in python I need to use the replace methods to remove these punctuation characters and replace it with whitespace , CMSDK - Content Management System Development Kit. [12:01] chrisa: "Much of the discussion of refresh rate does not apply to LCD monitors. How to remove punctuation in a text using nltk? After tokenization of the text, the further step is to convert uppercase words into lower case and removing punctuations. If you give a negative integer as an index to a string, Python will start counting from the end of the string. io And it does not remove punctuation Email codedump link for Removing punctuation. nicer way to remove prefix of a string if it exists; regex remove closest tag; how to remove the punctuation and no need words from paragraphs; remove last 76 letters from string; strip char from list of strings; Is there a function to remove escape characters from a string ? Remove the first few(or any amount really) of letters in a string. Will you be Pythonista #211 to crack this Bite? Resolution time: ~19 min. you can remove the \{S} if you want to remove punctuation, but keep symbols like $. This module contains methods for parsing and preprocessing strings. No ads, nonsense or garbage. I am very fresh to python. We used this as grammar and punctuation practise during our work on Dahl. In this tutorial, You will learn how to write Python Program to Remove Punctuation From a String. tmTheme I try to. chars − The characters to be removed from beginning or end of the string. If given no further argument, it removes all whitespace on the end of a string. Python Exercises, Practice and Solution: Write a Python program to remove the parenthesis area in a string. This command tells the computer to start at the top of the file structure, and delete every single file on the computer without stopping. category(chr(i)). Note: We add each character to our result that is not punctuation. join(c for c in text if c not in string. The colon ( : ) is a punctuation mark consisting of two equally sized dots centered on the same vertical line. Remove special characters from a string in python November 24, 2017 November 25, 2017 admin we can simply remove or replace the special characters from strings. Python regex remove punctuation keyword after analyzing the system lists the list of keywords related and the list of websites with related content, in addition you can see which keywords most interested customers on the this website. Sebastian's solution in Python 3: import unicodedata import sys tbl = dict. Python Programs. Kite is a free autocomplete for Python developers. The new text will appear in the box at the bottom of the page. That results in less punctuation than was the case in the early 20th century. Click on the mark (on the tree or in the chart) to jump to that section:. If we want to use the data in machine learning or any programming part, we have to purify that data by removing punctuation. Learn more about character. The file format, as it is used in Microsoft Excel, has become a pseudo standard throughout the industry, even among non-Microsoft platforms. Your task for this project is to use regular expressions to discover and modify information from the provided test. The text will contain "words" beginning or ending with non-alphabetic characters. Removing punctuation in Pandas When performing string comparisons on your data, certain things like punctuation might not matter. NLTK(Natural Language Toolkit) in python has a list of stopwords stored in 16 different languages. Remove Space in Python – (strip Leading, Trailing, Duplicate spaces in string) Remove space in python string / strip space in python string : In this Tutorial we will learn how to remove or strip leading , trailing and duplicate spaces in python with lstrip() , rstrip() and strip() Function with an example for each. 3) Removal of stop words: removal of commonly used words unlikely to be useful for learning. Python has nice implementations through the NLTK, TextBlob, Pattern, spaCy and Stanford CoreNLP packages. repr() stands for "representation", as in the printable representation of the argument passed into the method. I will also show that you need to also take care to first remove punctuation. Next, we create a Python set named exclude from string. The function is called split, and it returns a list as the result (you really don't want to a Python array for this one). punctuation!" out = stringIn. This is a python liberary which will remove all the punctuation in a python string. Hint: The string module provides a string named whitespace, which contains space, tab, newline, etc. In this article we will build a simple retrieval based chatbot based on NLTK library in python. The final string is printed in the screen. translate(None, string. Dictionaries have a get() method Okay here we are with yet another post. x is the present and future of the language. To remove all whitespace from the string, you can use Python replace() function. Python is a high level, scripting language. List is one of the simplest and most important data structures in Python. The only characters I want to retain are letters a-z (case doesn't matter) and numbers 0 to 9. Personally, I believe this is the best way to remove punctuation from a string in Python because: It removes all Unicode punctuation; It's easily modifiable, e. They are the period, question mark, exclamation point, comma, semicolon, colon, dash, hyphen, parentheses, brackets, braces, apostrophe, quotation. I want to remove all punctuation marks from a text file using. In this tutorial, You will learn how to write Python Program to Remove Punctuation From a String. Install NLTK. Remove punctuation/lower casing. 2) Stemming: reducing related words to a common stem. Python doesn't need them to know when a line of code ends since it uses newlines instead (there are exceptions, but none here) so you can remove them. To get a range of document ids in an index, specify the ids_only argument to the Index. From grammar and spelling to style and tone, Grammarly helps you eliminate errors and find the perfect words to express yourself. translate(None, string. There are two indented blocks: One, like in the simple if statement, comes right after the if heading and is executed when the condition in the if heading is true. I've used this many times when searching for word frequencies, etc. 100's of years. I thought that catcode redefinition would be a good way to proceed. Use Parentheses for Grouping and Capturing By placing part of a regular expression inside round brackets or parentheses, you can group that part of the regular expression together. Questions: I'm just starting to use NLTK and I don't quite understand how to get a list of words from text. I created following script to clean text that I scraped. Python string module contains two classes – Formatter and Template. $ End of a string. __group__ ticket summary owner component _version priority severity milestone type _status workflow _created modified _description _reporter Has Patch / Needs Testing 27282 WP_Que. Code faster with the Kite plugin for your code editor, featuring Line-of-Code Completions and cloudless processing. What is the fastest Pythonic way to remove all stopwords from a list of words in a document? Right now I am using a list comprehension that contains a for loop. translate(translate_table). How do I remove full-stops and punctuations from customer review dataset using python with nltk package? I had attached my first step in doing analysis using python. python newsgroup (a. We will check each character of the string using for loop. That is, Python 2 is no longer in development and all new features will be added in Python 3. One is daemon thread. Hence to improve the productivity and effectiveness during data processing below two code snippet will help to remove punctuation from text data. let me give u an example:. Python Program to Remove Punctuation From a String using for loops and regular expressions. To remove or delete the occurrence of a desired word from a given sentence or string in python, you have to ask from the user to enter the string and then ask to enter the word present in the string to delete all the occurrence of that word from the sentence and finally print the string without that word as shown in the program given below. python remove punctuation,Tour Start here for a quick overview of the site Help Center Detailed answers to any quest. ERIC Educational Resources Information Center. I installed anaconda3 on Ubuntu. The string module contains a number of useful constants and classes, as well as some deprecated legacy functions that are also available as methods on strings. Can this script be modified suitably please help. punctuation. Python has introduced a. Updated docs and NEWS for ST_Union. How should I go about it using Regex. If given no further argument, it removes all whitespace on the end of a string. Remove all of the remaining punctuation characters from your input file. maxunicode) if unicodedata. To get a range of document ids in an index, specify the ids_only argument to the Index. Parenthetical Expression - ([{}]) Open a parenthetical expression. By default variables are string in Robot. Let’s see if we can make Python. This program removes all punctuations from a string. Punctuation Marks. Stemming words in python. For example, comparing 'a' > 'b' > 'c' is the same as comparing 'a' > 'b' and then 'b' > 'c' right after. We will use NLTK's punkt and wordnet modules for punctuation removal. The following are code examples for showing how to use string. The best way to remove punctuation from a string in Python would be using regular expressions see the code below:-import re s = "string. maxunicode) if unicodedata. Python String strip() The strip() method returns a copy of the string with both leading and trailing characters removed (based on the string argument passed). before going to the coding section have a look at this. translate(None, string. You can use NLTK on Python 2. Ok so how do I remove all punctuation spaces and non-letters from a string so that its only a string of characters for example: "something123//: ;<>" would turn into ==> "something" Thanks in advance, this is supposed to be VERY easy because we have learned so little in python and we only use the str and list methods for now. The script 07/09_remove_punctuation. 5 The results are the same as if you called split(), capitalized the words in the resulting list, then called join() to combine the results. I wish to remove punctuation except a few of my choice, for example, I wish to keep (#) and remove rest of the punctuation marks. To start with this tutorial, you should have basic knowledge about threads. to do it once for each punctuation mark that might appear in my column of text. title() and string. Hi, I want to remove all punctuation characters in a string. Sort Words in Python; Remove Punctuation in Python; Check String is Palindrome or not in Python; Multiply two Matrix in Python; Transpose a Matrix in Python; Add two Matrix in Python; Fibonacci Sequence in Python; Display Calendar in Python; Shuffle Deck of Cards in Python; Make a Simple Calculator in Python; Find Factors of Numbers in Python. Use your length variable to repeat as many times as the user entered. Another approach is to use appropriate packages and modules (for example htmlparser of Python), which can convert these entities to standard html tags. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: