Node Max Header Size

In computer networking, the maximum transmission unit (MTU) is the size of the largest protocol data unit (PDU) that can be communicated in a single network layer transaction. txt b/core/CHANGELOG. The IP datagram comprises a 20-byte header, a variable-size options field after the header, and the payload, which will typically be the TCP or UDP segment. The HTTP protocol parser that Node uses appears to be hard-coded with a maximum header size of 80KB. Internally, the elements are not sorted in any particular order, but organized into buckets. In Header linked list, we have a special node present at the beginning of the linked list. After that check a condition that if max value is less then head value then head value is assign to max or min value is greater then head value then head value is assign to min otherwise head point to next node. server merely needs to read it. js Every size above about 1900 is ignored. Although you ask a simple question, "what size lymph node is worrisome?", there just is NO simple answer. This setting is recommended by NGNIX. Node lease feature is enabled by default since 1. If you set the property to Yes (the default), the queue message is received under sync point (that is, in a WebSphere MQ unit of work). The purposes is to clarify some aspects of TCP and its interaction with IP. Normally, the size of a node is determined by smallest width and height needed to contain its label and image, if any, with a margin specified by the margin attribute. Since that is a compile-time constant, you would have to use a custom-compiled version of Node to set that constant larger. This is why the header has a maximum size of 60 Bytes. The levels parameter defines hierarchy levels of a cache: from 1 to 3, each level accepts values 1 or 2. fsck and Disk Utility won't repair Volume: invalid b-tree node size. It provides a browser-based editor that makes it easy to wire together flows using the wide range of nodes in the palette that can be deployed to its runtime in a single-click. primaries This allows shard allocation only for primary shards. If the node is a leaf node (eh. Define node. The Content-Length HTTP header is used to inform the server or client of the size of the request or response body that is being transferred. The MTU relates to, but is not identical to the maximum frame size that can be transported on the data link layer, e. The consolidate. An empty edge node is a Linux virtual machine with the same client tools installed and configured as in the head-nodes, but with no Hadoop services running. V8's heap size is limited to 1 GB but Buffer objects exist largely. (3 replies) Hi, I just tried to increase the heap size of v8. Message header size limits: Specifies the maximum size of all message header fields in a message. This part usually contains a comparatively small response header and can be made smaller than the buffers for the rest of the response. js or another push-model. Most of the time it will be the "Default YOURSERVERNAME" connector. Each extension header must fall on a 64-bit (8-byte) boundary. only the global limit of passenger_max_pool_size will be enforced. Re: 16' Garage Door Headers mt - As long as the walls adjacent to the door are 16" or wider, I've used exactly what you cited above - however, it seems that many want to maximize their openings (16' door) with a building that is limited by lot size, resulting in 12" in. 16, Kubernetes supports clusters with up to 5000 nodes. 0 security release introduced some unexpected breakages on the 10. That is, add 100000 child nodes to a parent node and the treeview can actually collect the nodes, but it will not allow you to scroll them. The IP datagram comprises a 20-byte header, a variable-size options field after the header, and the payload, which will typically be the TCP or UDP segment. Since an IPv4 header may contain a variable number of options, this field specifies the size of the header (this also coincides with the offset to the data). Since it is the minimum size specified in the IP standard, 576 bytes has become a common default MTU value used for IP datagrams. Let's say you are a startup focusing on upload technology and you want the maximum level of control for your file uploads. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 CVS Integer overflow in the "Max-dotdot" CVS protocol command (serve_max_dotdot) for CVS 1. Digging In More - What I Learned. 0 running on Microsoft Windows Server 2008. You'll see the value changed when you do another get-receiveconnector like above again. Limits are listed in the following sections:. js will start throwing HPE_HEADER_OVERFLOW exceptions when parsing responses from external HTTP API calls that have large response headers (which isn't so uncommon when you factor in JWT and CSP headers). js has significantly reduced max http header size since versions v6. Or, add a value that matches the size of the Content-Length header that the client sends as part of the request. For instance, you could disable HTTP on data-only nodes if you also have client nodes which are intended to serve all REST requests. The header is at least 8 octets in size; if more Type-specific Data is needed than will fit in 4 octets, blocks of 8 octets are added to the header repeatedly, until all Type-specific Data is placed. Twitter Summary Card Image Size. And if there is a max size, is it determined by the protocol or is it at the discretion of the server? Stack Exchange Network Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow , the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. We are a community of 300,000+ technical peers who solve problems together Learn More. As covered earlier in the Hop-by-Hop extension header description, larger packets called Jumbograms are possible in IPv6. Server administrators might need to increase or decrease the size of the HTTP Request header field. Method Detail setAlignment public static void setAlignment(Node child, Pos value) Sets the alignment for the child when contained by a border pane. Internally, the elements are not sorted in any particular order, but organized into buckets. Node-RED: Lecture 6 - Example 6. Command specifies the nature of the transfer read/write etc. Adding support for TCP jumbograms required modification to the Maximum Segment Size and Urgent Pointer fields to interpret a value of 65,535 as infinite. txt +++ b/core/CHANGELOG. An empty edge node is a Linux virtual machine with the same client tools installed and configured as in the head-nodes, but with no Hadoop services running. After correction we are able to work with files greater than 2. node synonyms, node pronunciation, node translation, English dictionary definition of node. Nodemailer is a module for Node. 1 standard specifies a number of parameters that describe the limitations of the file system. Adding 26 bytes for the Ethernet header results in a maximum frame (not the same as MTU) of 1526 bytes. ) All that also depends on the region, I think. At the time, I had just finished remediating an issue where requests were being blocked by a WAF for exceeding the “max header size” policy. Tail: it has a null-next reference (link). Looking at the bigger picture, increasing stack size may not solve all your issues. format (Optional, string) Short version of the HTTP accept header. So, I renamed it to nd. This token is sent as request header field "Authorization" in every web request. The node controller checks the state of each node every --node-monitor-period seconds. This means you're counting on node to send the headers for you at the correct time before you start sending body data. Part 9 - Binary Search and Duplicate Keys. Parameters size Size of the memory block, in bytes. Allow the maximum size of HTTP headers to be overridden from the command line. The proposed model provides decentralized load balancing control algorithm. More and more people are picking up Node and publishing modules to NPM at such a pace that exceeds other languages. In addition, the element can contain a collection of user-defined HTTP header limits in the element, which allows you to define custom settings on HTTP headers. Search, removal, and insertion operations have logarithmic complexity. ', 'No image displayed when no image is attached and no default image specified. For the guys with 9L or other NA builds, what header/size are you running? Everyone mentions ARH, but not the specific model. For the files in the application that will not change, you can usually add aggressive caching by sending the response header below. Set the value to the maximum size (in bytes) that the HTTPListener accepts for an HTTP header. Support for more video sources can be added, but you'll need to add code to create custom video handlers. The default of 0 means "max open files (system's limit) / worker-processes - 1024". Here is one. The maximum total size of warning headers in client HTTP responses, defaults to unbounded. Having a lot of small shards can be very inefficient. Your node is empty so it is relative small. Header/Logo image size Status: Closed All header images look blurry no matter what we do because we want it to fill the whole width of the page. The max size of allowed headers. 3) -max-old-space-size=8192. (52 GB per node) Its a SQL pointing to single table. But it will if you record your longest text, say, Magnetometer then you supply that or the width you want (with inner sep correction) and use it in your style. Total cookie header size can be up to 32K in length. Djikstra used this property in the opposite direction i. This document proposed two major changes to the current ARPANET host access protocol. Search, insertion, and removal of elements have average constant-time complexity. length property; however, the. max-worker-open-files¶. Is there a maximum header size in word 2010? I have documents that require a first page header that can be up to half the printable page (and sometimes more) and am having trouble increasing the size. Reserved data in TCP headers always has a value of zero. 02 Quiz #3 Review Problems Problem. -DHTTP_MAX_HEADER_SIZE=). Node before had a default header size allowance of 80kb, but changed it to 8kb (nodejs/node#24731). Repeat steps#2 and #3 until the heap contains only one node. Max node size exceeded and XML parser limits exceeded errors when testing with the DataPower probe enabled "Max node size exceeded" with an error-code of "0x00030009". For all files where the maximum record size is less than 4095 bytes (excluding the record header), the record header is 2 bytes long. node --max-old-space-size=4096 script. Suppose you need to store an integer value which can range from zero to one million. 6 allow the full size. The Max-Forwards value is a decimal integer indicating the remaining number of times this request message may be forwarded. If you require that an integer be represented in exactly N bits, use one of the following types, with the obvious mapping to bit size and signedness:. TCP Maximum Segment Size (MSS) and Relationship to IP Datagram Size (Page 2 of 3) Maximum Segment Size Selection. only the global limit of passenger_max_pool_size will be enforced. the node must query all other nodes in the cluster. If the node is a leaf node (eh. max-header-size is Int type and we don't have requirement to set it to large value. htaccess file is a special hidden file that contains various settings you can use to modify the server behavior, right down to a directory specific level. of Bytes in the Header = 13 x 4 = 52 Bytes. In addition, the element can contain a collection of user-defined HTTP header limits in the element, which allows you to define custom settings on HTTP headers. TCP Maximum Segment Size (MSS) and Relationship to IP Datagram Size (Page 2 of 3) Maximum Segment Size Selection. 16, may allow remote attackers to cause a server crash, which could cause temporary data to remain undeleted and consume disk space. This can cause unexpected memory issues when running on CircleCI. Each extension header must fall on a 64-bit (8-byte) boundary. js REST APIs , including topics like naming your routes, authentication, black-box testing & using proper cache headers for these resources. 0 - Other mail system problem 552 - '#5. PRIMARY NODE POOL: Select a VM size for the AKS nodes. Set the value to the maximum size (in bytes) that the HTTPListener accepts for an HTTP header. For use with these templates, it also provides several different synchronization filters to tailor the memory-management strategy to a variety of different multithreading schemes (including none). pl: * allow minor releases from master_2 branch * convert windows splash screen to BMP3 from PNG Martin Dobias 2016-10-20 Fix reordering and removal of legend nodes in composer legend Martin Dobias 2016-10-20 Fix building of legend node tree if embedded widgets are used in the layer Martin Dobias 2016-10-20. Now some more. Part 10 - Splitting a Leaf Node. Although most parameters have a single value, some parameters have different values depending on the node type used. 14 as a beta feature (feature gate NodeLease, KEP-0009). Functions accept a config object as an argument. The node creates a unique identifier for the input message and stores it as a binary array of 24 bytes in. If you at least post the destination email domain I can look it up for you. 0 - Other mail system problem 552 - '#5. size_t is an unsigned integral type. or less by the doors!. Restarting nginx: nginx: [emerg] could not build the server_names_hash, you should increase either server_names_hash_max_size: 256 or server_names_hash_bucket_size: 64. Ensures that Impala can process rows of at least the specified size. The issue is rather hard to debug and one of the possible cause is that http header size limit limit exceeded. In addition, see also the Expires header. By default, the maximum amount of headers that could be sent prior to the fix was 80 KB, while most web servers limit this to 6 or 8 KB. The installed MTU can, for example, be selected from MTU sizes in an MTU database for nodes along the datapath. 13, NodeStatus is the heartbeat from the node. In this type of publication, you must consider not only the image but also the description that summarizes the content. Host level protocol used in the NSW--a slightly constrained version of ARPANET Host-to-Host protocol, affecting allocation, RFNM wait, and retransmission; see also RFC 684. Active 8 months ago. 国新办就保增长防风险等举行发布会 - news. The maximum frame payload is 1500 Bytes, this will offer the highest throughput, when the frames are transmitted by only one node on the network (i. aJ;aH+=3Dax+" "+aJ;aH+=3DaB+aJ;}var aa=3D"ja,fr,= he,it,af,ga,el,tl,ro,ru,ms,mk,az,zh,sq,te,be,ta,uk,ml,eu,se,su,aze,gre,tra,= fre,gdh,jpn,mac,mak,msa,may,ron,rum,rus. I am definately on a x86_64 machine. Here is ZooKeeper's definition of a watch: a watch event is one-time trigger, sent to the client that set the watch, which occurs when the data for which the watch was set changes. js Every size above about 1900 is ignored. PRIMARY NODE POOL: Select a VM size for the AKS nodes. Initialize the temp and max pointer to head nodes. Adding support for TCP jumbograms required modification to the Maximum Segment Size and Urgent Pointer fields to interpret a value of 65,535 as infinite. , host addresses that are independent of their physical location on the ARPANET) to communicate with each other, and the second will allow a host to shorten the amount of time that it may be blocked by. Sets are usually implemented as red-black trees. For example: By default, your root node is the tag in your Doc_Name. The maximum application payload depends on the selected data rate. The IHL field can hold values from 0 (Binary 0000) to 15 (Binary 1111). This post shows how to enable Cross Origin Resource Sharing (CORS) in Node. NODE_OPTIONS=--max_old_space_size=4096 Further Reading:. The max size of allowed headers. MAX_VALUE constant. The maximum application payload depends on the selected data rate. The size of each tile is the size needed to hold the preferred size of the largest node in the tile pane. It size is around 60 GB. This you can tweak to fit your particular server, but the value is in MB. max_size=500m sets the actual cache size at 500 MB. Minimum size of terminal nodes. format (Optional, string) Short version of the HTTP accept header. js REST APIs , including topics like naming your routes, authentication, black-box testing & using proper cache headers for these resources. Responsive Header. In the case where the LFS in not loaded, node. The Max-Forwards value is a decimal integer indicating the remaining number of times this request message may be forwarded. This parameter implicitly sets the depth of your trees. Re: Header Size There's tables that lay it all out for you in the IRC. 5"; it depends on the loads (however, I would tend to doubt it). The IPv4 "Total Length" header field has 16 bits to indicate the size of the packet in bytes. txt +++ b/core/CHANGELOG. When you include an MQGet node in a message flow, the value that you set for Transaction mode defines whether messages are received under sync point. Your node is empty so it is relative small. The values on these parameters cannot be modified. 16, may allow remote attackers to cause a server crash, which could cause temporary data to remain undeleted and consume disk space. It size is around 60 GB. And if there is a max size, is it determined by the protocol or is it at the discretion of the server? Stack Exchange Network Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow , the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. In the ApplicationHost. Update: I just updated the code so it works with node v0. This is why the header has a maximum size of 60 Bytes. It was previously named "maxlimitondataread". 7 MBits/sec for CAN FD; Maximum latency of high priority message 512). This specification describes an optimized expression of the semantics of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), referred to as HTTP version 2 (HTTP/2). windowBits can also be zero to request that inflate use the window size in the zlib header of the compressed stream. Repeat steps#2 and #3 until the heap contains only one node. For instance, you could disable HTTP on data-only nodes if you also have client nodes which are intended to serve all REST requests. This is a pretty big change that is going to take multiple articles to implement. This parameter implicitly sets the depth of your trees. FC uses one frame format for many purposes, and at many layers. The following table shows the default values for the max_cache_memory and num_threads parameters for each node type. Since that is a compile-time constant, you would have to use a custom-compiled version of Node to set that constant larger. Set the value to the maximum size (in bytes) that the HTTPListener accepts for an HTTP header. headers – {Object} – Map of strings or functions which return strings representing HTTP headers to send to the server. Looking at the bigger picture, increasing stack size may not solve all your issues. In addition, the element can contain a collection of user-defined HTTP header limits in the element, which allows you to define custom settings on HTTP headers. 国新办就保增长防风险等举行发布会 - news. DATA Step Concepts SAS ® 9. Without any sort of runtime maximum HTTP header size parameter that can be defined in http request, Node. If you at least post the destination email domain I can look it up for you. , host addresses that are independent of their physical location on the ARPANET) to communicate with each other, and the second will allow a host to shorten the amount of time that it may be blocked by. x through 1. This is a pretty big change that is going to take multiple articles to implement. By default 512 bytes will be used. It will also calculate engine size based on a known set of headers and rpm at which peak torque is desired. A while back I published a post about HTTP request header size limits. We use the following steps to delete the root node from a max heap Step 1 - Swap the root node with last node in max heap; Step 2 - Delete last node. The first change will allow hosts to use logical addressing (i. 13, the default value was 512. json call or in response data of listing endpoints. The idea is to traverse the linked list while head not equal to NULL and initialise the max and min variable to INT_MIN and INT_MAX respectively. Modhashes can be obtained via the /api/me. The maximum size for a FC frame is 2148 bytes, and the header FC frame itself is a bit strange, at least when compared to Ethernet with IP and TCP. The record header for each record starts at an address which is an exact multiple of the data alignment value for the file type (see the section Indexed. Source code of node github : /* Maximium header size allowed. LIN (Local Interconnected Network) any LIN node even by the LIN Master if it has a Slave Task. Window headers support the roof and other structure above a window; if you choose a header that is too small, its weakness could lead to a collapse. full_id (Optional, boolean) If true, return the full node ID. Abstract: 1593 handwritten digits from around 80 persons were scanned, stretched in a rectangular box 16x16 in a gray scale of 256 values. This was causing issues for our app, and forcing us to clear cache regularly. Without any sort of runtime maximum HTTP header size parameter that can be defined in http request, Node. Does the MTU change at each phase of encapsulation, or is the term "MTU" only meant to define the maximum size of a packet at layer 3? The MTU is often considered a property of a network link, and will generally refer to the layer 2 MTU. Everything is handled as a stream which should make it able to parse even very large messages (100MB+) with relatively low overhead. About DevCentral. 2 and Solaris 2. The SDO packet always contains 8 bytes of data (even if they are not all used). security release introduced some unexpected breakages on the 10. 14, there was a breaking change decreasing max http header size from 80K to 8K. The packet size is 5000 bits, and each link introduces a propagation delay of 10 microseconds. It provides a browser-based editor that makes it easy to wire together flows using the wide range of nodes in the palette that can be deployed to its runtime in a single-click. The Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) is the largest possible frame size of a communications Protocol Data Unit (PDU) on an OSI Model Layer 2 data network. The column on the left of each chart labeled BEAM SPAN represents the beam length (with bearing) required for your project. Recently, I’ve been dealing with a similar, but slightly different issue…requests failing due to the size of the response. Child Elements. MAX_SAFE_INTEGER, 2), will yield undesired results such as NaN. The details of setting up hash tables are provided in a separate document. These typedef s are in stdint. You can set the global reply_body_max_size parameter. As covered earlier in the Hop-by-Hop extension header description, larger packets called Jumbograms are possible in IPv6. If the server. For headers you have (bold added): HTTP does not place a predefined limit on the length of each header field or on the length of the header section as a whole, as described in Section 2. Re: 16' Garage Door Headers mt - As long as the walls adjacent to the door are 16" or wider, I've used exactly what you cited above - however, it seems that many want to maximize their openings (16' door) with a building that is limited by lot size, resulting in 12" in. ceiling value). Node recently introduced a security fix that decreased the max header size to 8kb 1860352. For example, this would be useful for forms designers who expect to get several files and who would like to show a multiline file input field in the browser (with a. This is the block size that curl will try to use when transferring data to or from a TFTP server. MAX_VALUE constant. Change the design of the header depending on the screen size. A study of level II lymph nodes shows that for the whole population a minimum diameter of 8 mm gives a relatively high sensitivity and specificity of 81% and 80%, respectively. There are some layer size limitations in Windows output: archive/tar: invalid tar header then you may have exceeded the maximum allowable layer size. For example, the "Content-type" header contains the MIME type for a request. The remaining node is the root node and the tree is complete. Header example 2 P6 1024 788 # A comment 255 Header example 3 P3 1024 # the image width 788 # the image height # A comment 1023 The format of the image data itself depends on the magic PPM identifier. The installed MTU can, for example, be selected from MTU sizes in an MTU database for nodes along the datapath. Each digital I/O pin has 8 different modes that can be selected, including GPIO. Well organized and easy to understand Web building tutorials with lots of examples of how to use HTML, CSS, JavaScript, SQL, PHP, Python, Bootstrap, Java and XML. If you are working on an article or set, the root node is the or tag in Doc_Name. The consolidate. max_size=500m sets the actual cache size at 500 MB. Head: it has a null-prev reference (link). The size parameter is the maximum size of the resource. The maximum packet size supported by the basic IPv6 header is 65,536 octets, which is limited by the 16-bit length of the Payload Length field. 14, there was a breaking change decreasing max http header size from 80K to 8K. js has significantly reduced max http header size since versions v6. on("pageinit",function(){ var. Child Elements. The maximum total size of warning headers in client HTTP responses, defaults to unbounded. It size is around 60 GB. size_t is an unsigned integral type. Tail: it has a null-next reference (link). 9, and Netscape 8. windowBits can also be zero to request that inflate use the window size in the zlib header of the compressed stream. Since an IPv4 header may contain a variable number of options, this field specifies the size of the header (this also coincides wi. This is the start of the stable review cycle for the 4. Remove the maxAllowedContentLength property. UDP is different as its header is only 8 bytes and the timestamp and MSS options don't apply. The Max-Forwards value is a decimal integer indicating the remaining number of times this request message may be forwarded. Command specifies the nature of the transfer read/write etc. Sign in Sign up. The title allows a maximum of 70 characters and the description a max of 200 characters 280 by 150 px File size up to 1MB. Specifying a value of 100 would limit the length of the "Content-type" header to 100 bytes. only the global limit of passenger_max_pool_size will be enforced. This broke our application. The node size normally depends on the size of the content. Deleting root node from a max heap is little difficult as it disturbs the max heap properties. The data offset field stores the total size of a TCP header in multiples of four bytes. If the HTTP response coming from the server has a Content-length header, then Squid compares the content-length value to the reply_body_max_size value. What is the maximum size of an IPv4 header? CookMyProject. More specifically, we support configurations that meet all of the following criteria: No more than 5000 nodes No more than 150000 total pods No more than 300000 total containers No more than 100 pods per node Support Setup Quota Issues Etcd storage Size of master and master components Addon Resources Allowing minor node. As we get close to general availability for version 3, we’ll share a more detailed plan on how we’ll support the 2. Jan 06, 2015 08 you could consider increasing the size of the MaxRequestLength as mentioned in this article or within. This option normally appears immediately after the end of the 20 byte TCP header. You'll see the value changed when you do another get-receiveconnector like above again. In our case, the WAF was configured to block requests with more than 4kb of headers. You need to append your desired memory size in megabytes. cf' when calling sendmail to force it to use a particular. Well organized and easy to understand Web building tutorials with lots of examples of how to use HTML, CSS, JavaScript, SQL, PHP, Python, Bootstrap, Java and XML. 0 Maximum number of characters to be contained in the field and line buffers before an exception is raised. The SDO packet always contains 8 bytes of data (even if they are not all used). For example, as described in Table 1, when an HBox attempts to resize the height of a child node, it can resize it only up to its maximum height. 7, video file size is capped at 8MB. js has seen an important growth in the past years, with big companies such as Walmart or PayPal adopting it. The proposed model provides decentralized load balancing control algorithm. there are no collisions) To calculate the throughput provided by the link layer, one must first calculate the maximum frame rate for this size of frame. This memo is a clarification to the TCP specification, and contains information that may be considered as "advice to implementers". By default, the maximum amount of headers that could be sent prior to the fix was 80 KB, while most web servers limit this to 6 or 8 KB. Active 8 months ago. A clamped node is a resizable node whose maximum height is the same as its preferred height, and its maximum width is the same as its preferred width. Prior to version 1. inactive=24h removes anything from the cache which has not been accessed in the last 24 hours. Defaults to false. It size is around 60 GB. Otherwise it returns maxlen. For example, as described in Table 1, when an HBox attempts to resize the height of a child node, it can resize it only up to its maximum height. DefaultMaxHeaderBytes is the maximum permitted size of the headers in an HTTP request. Determine the beam / header span (length) and the span carried (supported) by the beam / header. The solution to run your Node. Search, insertion, and removal of elements have average constant-time complexity. As I dug into the issue further, I learned that max header size is not only a concern from a security standpoint. stat() or fs. In the Add Header dialog box, enter the HTTP header and the maximum size that you want for the header limit, and then click OK. Unordered set is an associative container that contains a set of unique objects of type Key. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: